Một trong những kỹ năng quan trọng trong kì thi IELTS là kỹ năng paraphrase. Bài viết dưới đây sẽ cung cấp kiến thức tổng quát về kỹ năng Paraphrase. Đặc biệt, hocsinhgioi đã tổng hợp cho các bạn bài tập về cách Paraphrase trong IELTS Writing với đáp án chi tiết để các bạn luyện tập.
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I. Lý thuyết về Paraphrase trong IELTS Writing
1. Paraphrase là gì?
Paraphrase là cách viết lại một cụm từ/ câu hay đoạn văn bằng cách sử dụng những từ ngữ khác sao cho ý nghĩa nguyên bản của cụm hay câu gốc không bị thay đổi. (Hay còn được gọi là “diễn giải lại ý”)
2. Các cách paraphrase trong IELTS Writing
- Paraphrase sử dụng từ đồng nghĩa (synonyms)
- Paraphrase bằng công thức chủ động & bị động
- Đổi thể mẫu từ
- Dùng chủ ngữ giả
- Thay đổi trật tự từ/ cụm từ/ mệnh đề trong câu
Xem thêm những bài viết đáng chú ý
- Từ vựng theo Topic – 30 Topic Related Vocabulary for IELTS
- Tải full bộ sách Collins for IELTS – Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking and Vocabulary
- Phân biệt thì Quá khứ hoàn thành và Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
II. Bài tập về cách Paraphrase trong IELTS Writing
Để giúp các bạn mở rộng vốn từ trong IELTS nói chung và IELTS Writing nói riêng, trong bài viết này, hocsinhgioi đã tổng hợp cho các bạn dạng bài tập về Sentence Transformation. Các bài tập sẽ từ cơ bản đến nâng cao để các bạn luyện tập. Rèn luyện qua dạng bài tập này cũng là cách rất hay để luyện synonym hay paraphrase đấy nhé!
Bài tập 1
Sử dụng các từ đồng nghĩa được gợi ý và viết lại các câu sau
- Universities should accept equal numbers of men and women in every subject. (the same number of)
- Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in seperate schools. (single-sex schools)
- Even though globalization affects the world’s economies in a positive way, the negative side should not be forgotten. (In spite of / good effects / drawbacks)
- The problem of deforestion is impossible to avoid, especially when people focus too much on making profits. (undeniable / concentrate on)
- One of the main reasons for students to have higher education is to get high salary when graduated. (well-paid jobs)
- The increasing level of pollution relates directly to the development of economy. (associated to)
- Many people believe that government should provide free education to all citizens. (be equipped with / non-paid education)
- It is undeniable to say that the gender inequality is still happening in the developing countries. (unavoidable / third world countries)
- The urgent thing is to solve the existing problem about malnutrition in Africa. (crucial / deal with)
- The main factors for dealing with the issue include both government and citizens. (tackle)
Bài tập 2
Chuyển các câu sau thành câu bị động
- Parents should orient their children about future career.
- Non-governmental organizations have given poor families a lot of support in terms of financial issues to develop sustainably.
- The youth pay more attention to environmental issues than they used to do in the past.
- Teachers can teach students to ultilize their potentials in some specific aspects.
- Teenagers tend to spend their money on video games.
Bài tập 3
Dựa vào các từ gợi ý, hãy hoàn thành các câu sau và sử dụng chủ ngữ giả
- There / some / methods / governments / could / do / raise / awareness / global warming.
- It/ challenging / manage / terrorism / happening / all / world.
- It / very / important / fasten / seatbelt / when / drive / car.
- There / be / adverse / effects / health / if / people / not / pay / attention / enviroment.
- It / hard / balance / between / work / life.
- There / undeniable / impacts / of / air pollution / daily.
- It / necessary / learn / another / language / beside / mother tongue.
- It / essential / developing countries / improve / health / education / trade.
Bài tập 4
Xác định dạng từ và chọn từ thích hợp
Now that we know the true (responsible/ responsibility) of a teacher, we can (easy/ easily) compare our parents and teachers. The things that we learn from our parents are far more (important/ importance) than what we learn from our teachers. I am not denying the invaluable knowledge we learn from our teachers through our academic years, but what we learn from our parents are (incomparably/ incomparable). We learn to survive, talk, and distinguish well from bad, values of life, morality and such important other things from our parents. We are the true (reflected/ reflection) of our parents and our characters are shaped by their (personal/ personality) and (behave/ behaviours). Later the teachers help us to enhance our knowledge, horizon and our view of life but the very foundation and ground are made by our parents. The parents sacrifice so many things of their life just to ensure a better life for us and nothing in this whole world could even be compared with their (sacrifice/ sacrificed) for us. Think of a student who is (able/ unable) to pay his monthly school fees would be cast away from the school and the beloved teachers would (scarcely/ scarce) be there to help him. On the other hand, the parents would always be there with their every (possibly/ possible) effort to help the child.
Bài tập 5
Viết lại các câu sau sao cho nghĩa không đổi
- Some people believe that environmental protection is the responsibility of politicians, not individuals as individuals can do too little.
- In many cities, the use of video cameras in public places is being increased in order to reduce crime.
- In the modern world, it is no longer necessary to use animals for food, clothing or medicine.
- Some people believe that developments in the field of artificial intelligence will have a positive impact on our lives in the near future.
- The use of social media is replacing face-to-face interaction among many people in society.
- In the developed world, average life expectancy is increasing.
- The diagram below shows one way of manufacturing ceramic pots.
- The bar chart shows the percentage of young people in higher education in 2000, 2005 and 2010.
- The bar chart below shows the percentage of Australian men and women in different age groups who did a regular physical activity in 2010.
- The bar chart below shows the top ten countries for the production and consumption of electricity in 2014.
Bài tập 6
Paraphrase lại đề IELTS Writing Task 1
- The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain.
- The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the costs of adult education should be shared.
- The table below shows the consumer durables (telephone, refrigerator, etc.) owned in Britain from 1972 to 1983.
Đáp án bài tập 1
- Universities should allow the same number of male and female joining in each subject.
- Some people believe that one of the education methods is to let boys and girls study in single-sex schools.
- In spite of the fact that globalization has good effects on the world’s economies, its drawbacks should be paid attention to.
- The deforestation is undeniable, especially when people concentrate too much on earning money.
- One of the main causes for pupils to have higher education is to get well-paid jobs when graduated.
- The emerging pollution is directly associated to the economy growth.
- Many people assert that everyone should be equiped with non-paid education by the government.
- It is unavoidable that the situation of gender inequality is still exisiting in the third world countries.
- The crucial thing is to deal with malnutrition happening in Africa.
- Both government and citizens play main roles in tackling the issue.
Đáp án bài tập 2
- Children should be oriented about future career by their parents.
- Poor families have been given a lot of supports in terms of financial issues to develop sustainably by non-governmental organizations.
- Environmental issues are paid more attention to by the youth than they used to do in the past.
- Students can be taught to utilize their potentials in some specific aspects.
- Money tend to be spent on video games by teenagers.
Đáp án bài tập 3
- There are some methods that governments could do to raise the awareness about global warming.
- It is challenging to manage the terrorism happening all over the world.
- It is very important to fasten the seatbelt when driving a car.
- There will be adverse effects on health if people do not pay attention to environment.
- It is hard to balance between work and life.
- There are undeniable impacts of air pollution on health.
- It is necessary to learn another language beside mother tongue
- It is essential for developing countries to improve on health, education and trade.
Đáp án bài tập 4
Đáp án bài tập 5
- It is believed that to solve environmental problems only governments have the power to as individuals can do too little.
- In many major cities around the world, the use of surveillance cameras in public places is being increased in order to crime deterrence
- These days, we no longer need to use products from animals, such as food, clothing items or even medicine
- It is argued that advances in artificial intelligence (AI) will bring a range of benefits in the foreseeable future
- These days, face-to-face communication is being replaced with online conversations using social media apps, such as Facebook, WhatsApp or Tumblr.
- Many developed countries are experiencing substantial increases in life expectancy.
- The diagram illustrates how ceramic pots are manufactured.
- The bar chart compares the proportion of young people entering higher education in three years, 2000, 2005 and 2010.
- The bar chart compares the proportion of people in Australia who exercised on a regular basis in 2010, according to age and gender.
- The bar chart compares 10 highest-ranking countries in terms of electricity generation and consumption in 2014.
Đáp án bài tập 6
1. The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain.
Paraphrase: The bar graph ILLUSTRATES how much money people in Britain spent per week on 3 different types of fast food.
2. The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the costs of adult education should be shared.
Paraphrase: The bar graph demonstrates 7 different reasons why adults pursue education at their age.
Hoặc: The second chart shows how the surveyees think their education expenses should be allocated.
3. The table below shows the consumer durables (telephone, refrigerator, etc.) owned in Britain from 1972 to 1983.
Paraphrase: The table illustrates the ownership rate of different home appliances in Britain over the course of 11 years starting from 1972.
Trong ví dụ này, bạn có thể thấy từ gạch chân “consumer durables” lạ, thậm chí không hiểu nghĩa là gì. Nhưng nhìn danh sách trong ngoặc, ta thấy có điện thoại, tủ lạnh,…) nên có thể đoán từ này giống nghĩa với “home appliances” – đồ gia dụng.
Kỹ năng Paraphrase chỉ là một trong rất nhiều kỹ năng mà bạn cần phải thành thạo nếu muốn chinh phục được kỳ thi IELTS. Hy vọng những bài tập do hocsinhgioi tổng hợp sẽ có ích cho thời gian ôn tập của các bạn. Hãy nhớ dành thời gian rèn luyện từng kỹ năng một để chuẩn bị cho mình một hành trang vững chắc nhất trước khi lên đường đi thi nhé!